How to Share Your qCal Study

Your Study or Studies can only be shared if they are occupied in a folder. Watch the short video below to see how Study sharing works on qCal-MR:

The Comprehensive qMRI Abbreviations List

  test test test test

[Paper] Stability and reproducibility of co-electrospun brain-mimicking phantoms for quality assurance of diffusion MRI sequences

The purpose of this study was the following, "Grey and white matter mimicking phantoms are important for assessing variations in diffusion MR measures at a single time point and over an extended period of time. This work investigates the stability of brain-mimicking...

[Paper] Artificial Intelligence for Breast MRI in 2008–2018: A Systematic Mapping Review

The purpose of this study was "to review literature from the past decade on applications of artificial intelligence (AI) to breast MRI." Download Paper

[Paper] Implementing diffusion-weighted MRI for body imaging in prospective multicentre trials: current considerations and future perspectives

The purpose of this study was the following, "For body imaging, diffusion-weighted MRI may be used for tumour detection, staging, prognostic information, assessing response and follow-up. Disease detection and staging involve qualitative, subjective assessment of...

[Paper] Distortion Inherent to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Can Lead to Geometric Miss in Radiosurgery Planning

The purpose of this study was the following, "Anatomic distortion is present in all MRI data due to non-linearity of gradient fields and measures up to several millimeters. We evaluate the potential for uncorrected MRI to lead to geometric miss of the target volume in...

[Paper] Electromagnetics for QuantitativeMagnetic Resonance Imaging

The purpose of this study was the following, "Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is based on radio frequency (RF) interrogation of the human body at frequencies between 40 MHz and 300 MHz. An RF transmitter excites proton spin precession and then, in a manner analogous...

[Paper] DTI PhantomMaker: A 3D-Printed DTI Calibration Phantom for Water Diffusion Direction and Anisotropy in the Brain

The purpose of this study was the following, "As diagnostic tools, MRI scanners performing Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) require calibration to ensure standardization. This thesis presents a custom-designed 3D printer used to manufacture a novel type of DTI phantom,...

[Paper] T1 Independent, T2* Corrected MRI With Accurate Spectral Modeling for Quantification of Fat: Validation in a Fat-Water-SPIO Phantom

The purpose of this study was "to validate a T1-independent, T2*-corrected fat quantification technique that uses accurate spectral modeling of fat using a homogeneous fat-water-SPIO phantom over physiologically expected ranges of fat percentage and T2* decay in the...

[Paper] The effect of low resolution and coverage on the accuracy of susceptibility mapping

The purpose of this study was the following,"Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) has found increasing clinical applications. However, to reduce scan time, clinical acquisitions often use reduced resolution and coverage, particularly in the through‐slice...
The Comprehensive qMRI Abbreviations List
~|elegant-themes~|elegant-themes-icon~|m
~|elegant-themes~|elegant-themes-icon~|f

List last updated on 1/4/2021

A B C D E F G H I L M N O P Q R S T U W

ADNI

Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative.

Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC)

A measure of the magnitude of diffusion of water molecules within tissue.

Most commonly clinically calculated using MRI with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI).

A quantitative imaging biomarker (typically in units mm2/s or μm2/ms) indicative of the mobility of water molecules. High ADC indicates free or less hindered mobility of water; low ADC indicates slow, restricted, or hindered mobility of water molecules.

Reference

Reference #2

B0

  • The main magnetic field
  • When an atom is aligned with B0 that means that it is parallel
  • When an atom is aligned in the opposite direction of B0 (antiparallel).

Reference

B1 Shim

  • Known as B1 shimming
  • Shimming is the process by which the main magnetic field is made more homogenous

Reference 

b-value

An indication of the strength of diffusion-weighting (typically in units of s/mm2). It depends on a combination of gradient pulse duration, shape, strength, and the timing between diffusion gradient pulses.

Reference

CMRI

Abbreviation for CaliberMRI

CNS

  • Central nervous system
  • Controls most functions of the body and mind
  • Consists of two parts: the brain and the spinal cord

Reference

COR

  • Coronal
  • a plane, slice or section made by cutting across the body from side to side and therefore parallel to the coronal suture of the skull.

Reference

DICOM

Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine standard for distributing and viewing any kind of medical image regardless of the origin. A DWI DICOM header typically contains meta-data reflecting scan geometry and key acquisition parameters (e.g., b-value and gradient direction) required for subsequent generation of ADC maps and ROI statistics. A DWI DICOM macro assigns the required diffusion-specific attributes to public DICOM tags (for example [0018, 9087] & [0018, 9098], which should be available independent of Vendor and scanner software version. Currently, vendors do not universally follow the DWI macro standard, storing b-value and direction metadata in private tags.

Reference

DOT

  • DOT Hazard Classification System
  • Placards used to identify the class or division of a material.

Reference

DWI

  • diffusion -weighted imaging
  • An indispensable tool in the examination of the CNS
  • It is considered useful not only for the detection of acute ischemic stroke but also for the characterization and differentiation of brain tumors and intracranial infections.
  • A type of MR image where tissue contrast is dependent on water mobility, diffusion gradient direction, concentration of water signal, and T2 relaxation. On heavily diffusion-weighted images (i.e. high b-value), high signal indicates low water mobility, high proton concentration, and/or long T2.

Reference

Reference #2

EPI

  • Echo planar imaging
  • performed using a pulse sequence in which multiple echoes of different phase steps are acquired using rephasing gradients instead of repeated 180 degree radio frequency pulses following the 90°/180° in a spin echo sequence

Reference

ERC

  • Endorectal coil
  • a latex (rubber) balloon with a central tube that contains the coils, and is inserted into the rectum and inflated before the scan to hold the coil in position close to the prostate.

Reference

ETL

  • The echo train length
  • It will determine the amount of echoes collected within a repetition time

Reference

FBG

  • Fibroglandual tissue mimic
  • A mimic made up of ____ that creates a density and composition similar to normal breast tissue

FOV

  • Field of view
  • the distance (in cm or mm) over which an MR image is acquired or displayed

Reference

GE

General electric cooperation.

Reference

HDPE

High-density polyethylene.

Reference

HNOC

Hazard(s) not otherwise classified

IATA class

The International Air Transport Association that offers a wide variety of fully compliant hazardous labels for all classes of chemicals.

Reference

IMDG

  • International Maritime Dangerous Goods code
  • A code forme to prevent all types of pollutants at the sea.

Reference

Isotropic (or trace) DWI

Directionally-independent diffusion-weighted images obtained as the composite (geometric average) of three orthogonal DWIs and used for ADC map derivation. Throughout this profile and assessment procedure, the term “DWI” refers to these directionally- independent images unless otherwise noted as a specific single-axis or directional DWI. Even in anisotropic media, directionallyindependent (i.e. scalar) diffusion metrics are measurable using DWI combined from three-orthogonal diffusion gradient acquisitions.

Reference

LC

  • Liquid crystal thermometer
  • A type of thermometer that consists of heat-sensitive liquid crystals in a plastic strip that change color to indicate different temperatures.

Reference

MSMA

  • Multi-slice-multi-angle
  • allows measurements at all cervical levels while ensuring minimum PVE contamination.

Reference

MTC

  • Magnetization transfer contrast
  • increases the contrast by removing a portion of the total signal in tissue.

Reference

NIST

The National Institute of Standards and Technology

NMR signal

the electromagnetic signal in the radio-frequency range produced by the precession of the transverse magnetization of the spins. The rotation of the transverse magnetization induces a voltage in a receiving antenna (coil) which is amplified and demodulated by the receiver circuits.

Reference

NMV

  • The net magnetization vector
  • the summation of all the magnetic moments of the individual hydrogen nuclei.

Reference

NSA

  • Number of signal averages
  • A measurement parameter
  • Used to represent the number of times each line of k-space data is acquired and is primarily used to improve signal-to-noise ratio

Reference

OSHA

Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

Reference

PAT mode

  • Parallel acquisition techniques
  • Parallel imaging is a robust method for accelerating the acquisition of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, and has made possible many new applications of MR imaging. Parallel imaging works by acquiring a reduced amount of k-space data with an array of receiver coils.

Reference

PBT or vPvB

Annex XIII to the REACH Regulation sets criteria for substances that are persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) or very persistent and very bioaccumulative (vPvB).

Reference

PE matrix

Phase encoding matrix.

Reference

PNS

Peripheral Nerve stimulation.

Reference

PVE

  • Prosthetic valve endocarditis
  • The infection of one or more prosthetic heart valves

Reference

QIBA

Quantitative Imagining Biomarkers Alliance

REACH

  • Reach stands for registration, evaluation, authorization and restriction
  • They maintain all restricted chemical lists.

Reference

Repeatability Coefficient (RC)

Represents measurement precision where conditions of the measurement procedure (scanner, acquisition parameters, slice locations, image reconstruction, operator, and analysis) are held constant over a “short interval”.

Reference

RF

  • Radio frequency
  • Also a technique whereby radio frequency oscillations are gated at a rate of pulses per second

Reference

ROI

  • Region of interest
  • Numerical analysis of an area of anatomy being scanned that is of particular importance in the image.

Reference

RSNA

Radiological Society of North America

SNR

  • Signal-to-noise ratio
  • a measure used in science and engineering that compares the level of a desired signal to the level of background noise.

Reference

T1 relaxation time

  • Also known as the spin-lattice relaxation time
  • A measure of how quickly the net magnetization vector (NMV) recovers to its ground state in the direction of B0.

Reference

T2 relaxation time

  • Also known as spin-spin relaxation and transverse relaxation
  • the progressive dephasing of spinning dipoles resulting in decay in the magnetization in the transverse plane (Mxy)

Reference

TE

  • The echo time
  • The time from the center of the RF-pulse to the center if the echo

Reference

TR

  • The repetition time
  • The length of time between corresponding consecutive points on a repeating series of pulses and echos

Reference

UCSF

The University of California at San Francisco

US EPCRA

United States Environmental Protection Agency.

Reference

WHMIS

Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System. 

Reference

Within-subject Coefficient of Variance (wCV)

Is often reported for repeatability studies to assess repeatability in test–retest designs. Calculated as seen in the table below:

1 Calculate the variance and mean for each of N subjects from their replicate measurements.
2 Calculate the wCV2 for each of the N subjects by dividing their variance by their mean squared.
3 Take the mean of the wCV2 over the N subjects.
4 Take the square root of the value in step 3 to get an estimate of the wCV.

More qCal-MR Tutorials